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Historic Timeline
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Timeline of Ancient Egypt Image

Historic Timeline Briefs:

Neolithic Period (To Top)

Prehistory
5500 - 3200 BC
Increased settledness
Agriculture, stockbreeding

Cultures of Lower Egypt (Northern Egypt):
Fajum A
Merimde
el-Omari
Maadi
Monochrome ceramics
Bowls and jars of hard rock
Emergence of copper

Cultures of Upper Egypt (Southern Egypt):
Badari
Naqada i, ii
Pottery with white paintings on red ground
Palettes in animal form
First approaches to round sculptures
Upcoming of bas-reliefs
Perfection of copper tools

Early Period (To Top)

3200 - 3000 BC
Naqada III
Spreading of Naqada III culture over Egypt
Creation of a united empire

Dynasty 0
Evidences of writing
Various kings known by name
Sovereign tombs in Abydos
Scorpion
Narmer

Dynastic time
(Dynasties and several kings)

Thinitic time About 3000 - 2700 BC

1st dyn.
Consolidation and organization of the Egyptian state
Foundation of Memphis
Development of administration
Creation of a calendar and development of writing
Royal tombs in Abydos
Tombs in northern Saqqara
Campaigns to Nubia
Aha (Menes?)
Djer
Djet
Den
Adjib
Hor Semerchet
Qa

2nd dyn.
Extension of trade routes to Palestine
Campaigns to Asia, Nubia, Libya
Short-term partition of Egypt, exclusion of lower Egypt
Hatepsechemui
Raneb
Ninetjer
Seth Peribsen
Chasechemui

Old Kingdom (To Top)

About 2707 - 2170 BC

3rd dyn.
About 2707 - 2639 BC
Residence in Memphis
Progress in development and usage of writing
Usage of processed rock as building material for monumental architecture
Development of a concept of monarchy, valid until the end of the Egyptian history
Development of a classic canon in art and architecture
Construction of Step Pyramid for king Djoser by architect Imhotep

4th dyn.
About 2639 - 2504 BC growing importance of solar religion, while down-grading the king's position who was regarded as the "son of Re", i.e. The son of the solar god
Construction of the Great Pyramid in Giza
Creation of a cemetery for officials
Increasing autonomy of all parts of the country
Control over lower Nubia
Campaign against Libya

5th dyn.
About 2504 - 2347 BC
Construction of pyramids and solar shrines, mortuary temples for the sun god
The Osiris cult comes into being
Increasing number of documents and writings
Greater independence of provincial officials
Pyramid Texts in the pyramid facility of Unas
Expeditions to the incense country of Punt
Campaign against Libya

6th dyn.
About 2347 - 2216 BC
Increase of power of provincial administrators
Dissolution of central power
Campaigns against nomads and Nubia
Final breakdown of the country's administrative and economic structures, breakdown of art

7th, 8th dyn.
About 2216 - 2170 BC
Numerous sovereigns reigning for a short time

First intermediary period (To Top)

About 2170 - 2020 bc

9th, 10th dyn. (Heracleopolites)
About 2170 - 2020 BC
Rulers of lower egypt with residence in heracleopolis
The belief in the hereafter is "demotized" (downgraded) as tombs of non-royals are equipped with holy texts

Middle Kingdom (To Top)

2119 - 1794 BC

11th dyn.
2119 - 1976 BC
Unification, foundation of the Middle Empire by Mentuhotep

12th dyn.
1976 - 1794 BC
Change of dynasties by usurpation
Literature and political propaganda flourish
Consolidation of royal sovereignty
Capital city in Lisht
Colonization of Faiyum
Ascendance of the god Amun, extended worship of Osiris in Abydos
Campaigns against Libya, Palestine and Nubia which is occupied
2nd cataract as the southern border
Battle against the Kerma empire at the middle Nile

Second Intermediary Period (To Top)

1794 - 1550 BC
Weakening of central power and disintegration of the country into various nomes
Immigration of Asians into the Delta

13th dyn.
1794/93 - 1648 BC
Various kings and residences in Lisht

14th dyn.
Various local kings in the Nile Delta

15th dyn. (Hyksos)
1648 - 1539 BC
Rulers from Asia in the Delta, residing in Avaris
Adoption of horse and wagon
Worship of god Seth (=Baal)

16th dyn.
Hyksos vassals in Lower and middle Egypt, parallel to 15th dyn.

17th dyn.
1645 - 1550 BC
Home dynasties in Thebes
Struggle against the Hyksos

New Kingdom (To Top)

1550 - 1070 BC

18th dyn.
1550 - 1292 BC
Final expulsion of Hyksos and unification of the empire
Affiliation of various city states in Syria and Palestine
Fluctuating extent of Egyptian empire and conflicts between the Egypt and the Mitanni sphere of influence
Extinction of the Kerma empire in Nubia and annexation of the territory to the 4th Cataract
Campaigns against rioters and nomads
Reorganization of administration
Residence in Thebes
Tremendous building projects
Amun becomes the empire's god

Amarna Period
1351 - 1334 BC
Revolutionary innovations with Aton as main deity
Residence in Amarna
Loss of Syrian provinces
Amenophis IV / Akhetaten

Post-Amarna Period
1334 - 1292 BC
Break with the Aton religion
Amun cult is restored
Reorganization of the state
Offensive foreign politics against Hethites
Residence in Memphis
Tutankhamen / Haremhab

Period of the Ramessides
1292 - 1070 BC

19th dyn.
1292 - 1186/85 BC
Conquest of Syria and Palestine
Peace with the Hittites
Residence in the Delta
Tremendous building projects
Repulse of the Lybians and maritime peoples' attempts of invasion

20th dyn.
1186 - 1070/69
Consolidation of the empire after a period of anarchy at the end of the 19th dynasty
Battles against the Lybians and the maritime people
Economic problems, corruption
Civil-war-like riots
Loss of Asian regions and large parts of the Nubian provinces

Third Intermediary Period (To Top)

About 1070/69 - 714

21st dyn.
1070/69 - 946/45
Division of the country with kings in Tanis in the Delta and the "god-state of Amun" in Thebes under the high priests of Amun

22nd/23rd/24th dyn. (Libyan period)
946/45 - 714 BC
Kings of Lybian origin ruling Egypt
Disintegration into several spheres of influence
Local sovereigns, nomarchs
Modification of burial customs
Single tombs replaced by family tombs
Funerals in the temple areas

Late Period (To Top)

746 - 336/35 BC

25th dyn. (Kushite period)
746 - 655 BC
Emergence of a Nubian center of power in el-Kurru, north of the 4th cataract
Conquest of Lower Nubia, extension of influence to Thebes where Nubian Sovereigns can settle down
Conflict with Tefnachte, the rising ruler of Sais
Conquest of Egypt by the Kushites
Foreign political engagement in maritime trade
Conflicts with Syrians, expelling the Kushites from Egypt
Destruction of Thebes by Ssyrians

26th dyn.
664 - 525 BC
Dissolution from Syrian regime
Campaigns against Syria, fighting against the Babylonians
Battles against the Kushites
Africa sail-round
Construction of a canal to the Red Sea
Greek influence

27th dyn. (Persian period)
525 - 401 BC
Egypt becomes Persian, its kings are correspondent to pharaohs
450 BC Herodot's trip to Egypt

28th/29th/30th dyn.
404 - 342 BC
Final attempts to regain independence with the help of the Spartans
Expulsion of Persians from Egypt
Last dynasties of Egyptian natives

31st dyn. (2nd Persian period)
342 - 332 BC
Persians conquer Egypt once again
Alexander the Great defeats the Persians during the battle at Issos

Greco-Roman Period (To Top)
332 - 30 BC

Ptolemies
Members of the Greek house of Ptolemy rule in Egypt as pharaohs
Perfect organization of administration
Combination of Greek and Egyptian elements (art, religion...)
Capital: Alexandria becomes a center of life in the Mediterranean sea
Riots of the Egyptian native residents against the Greek upper class
48 BC Caesar in Egypt
Ptolemy I and Cleopatra VII

Roman sovereignty
30 BC - 313 AD
Octavianus (Augustus) defeats Ptolemy and Cleopatra in the battle of Actium
Egypt becomes a Roman province
Economic recovery of the country, security and reorganization of civil administration
395 AD: Division into Western and Eastern Rome

Byzantine and Christian Egypt (Copts)
313 - 641 AD
Egypt is part of the East-Roman empire

451 AD - Council of Chalkedon
Division of the Coptic church from the empire's church

641 AD - conquest of Egypt by Arabs.

Quick Quiz

Question 1 (1 Points):
Which part of Egypt is known as Upper Egypt?
    The southern part
    The northern part

Question 2 (3 Points):
When do the annual Nile floods happen?
    In early summer
    In late summer
    In winter

Question 3 (3 Points):
What were leading factors in the earliest Egyptian economy?
    Hunting and collecting
    Gold and silver
    Cotton and weaving

Question 4 ( Points):
What were characteristics of the Naqada II cultural period?
    The advancement of pottery and craftsmanship
    The construction of the first pyramid
    Abydos became royal cemetery


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